Mourning in Ancient Greece

In this month of Hephaistion’s death, and after I read all the interesting reviews on the community Alexander’s army to my article about Admetus and Alexander, I though it was a good idea to write another article about the mourning in Antiquity.

All I could remember of my study in History of art about this subject was women toring their hair off and women’s laments too. But what is it all ? And what about the men ?

So I made some little search. I found and read an university article (Florence Gherchanoc, University Denis-Diderot, Paris : Mise en scène et réglementations du deuil en Grèce ancienne) that offered some responses.

In her article, Florence Gherchanoc spoke about the mise-en-scène and the rules about the mourning in Ancient Greece. And more particularly the roles of women during the funeral and why the city needed to rule and control the feminine expression of their pain.

Even if this question is really interesting, I will more particularly translate the part which make a reference to the proceedings of the mourning in the private sphere and the political sphere. Hoping to stay faithful to the thoughts of Florence Gherchanoc. And then in conclusion, I will compare these elements with Alexander’s attitude during and after Hephaistion’s death.

But first I want to answer about some notes I took from your reviews on Alexander’s army about my article : Some reflexion about Hephaistion’s death, when Alexander meets Euripides.

When I made a parallel between Admetus and Alexander, I was thinking about the similarities of the expression of their pains in front of the loss of their beloved, and not about the similarities between the two characters. And so, about the theatrically around Hephaistion’s death. And I think the main word was theatrically. I was searching why Alexander did what he did in this circumstances. And of course, knowing Alexander’s love for Homer and Illiad, Achilles and Patrocle was certainly his main inspiration but not only.

We know that Alexander loved theatre and music even more than antic games. I showed in my previous article the connexion between Euripides and the royal family Argead. And through Alexander’s life we can find examples showing how he used this theatrically in a political way, I will name only one example : Gordium and his knot.

And, in some way, all his life was influenced by theatre. With the distance, this link between theatre and actions in his life could look like a permanent mise-en-scène. And this mise-en-scène was to its apogee when took place Hephaistion’s death.

I want to precise that I didn’t imply that this event was not a huge loss for Alexander. It was, in so many ways. Or even that his pain was false. No, it is not what I mean. But the outrageousness was so impressive that I couldn’t help myself to wonder. Did he act like this because of his sole pain or there is another meaning behind ? And more important what was the ritual of mourning in Alexander’s age ?

So coming back to the article :

Mourning in private sphere

What we know about the mourning and its mise-en-scène in ancient Greece is this one was codified. The expressions of mourning was important, both a social necessity and a ritual obligation. Those manifestations touched both men and women but the show was different following the sex of people. Each one must behave in compliance with customs and ostentatious.

To be in mourning means to other that you are soiled. So to be in mourning means to stand out. That the reason why people must change their physical appearance and degrade the beauty of body. The man cut or shave their hair. The women are torn off their hair, scratch their cheeks, lacerate their veils, strike their chest and shed tears.These gestures are the signs of suffering. But are too expected and admitted norms by the society.

Clothes have to be different, too. This difference appears in the color. This latter must be opposite to the usual outfit and white dress for feast. Himation for men and peplos for women are generally in black or dark colors. But there is some exception like in Argos where people wear white clothes washed with water only. These colors show the transition step during which the living accompany their dead. These clothes of mourning can also be stained, ripped or dirty with tears, blood or dust.

Mourning is a break inside the family and too inside the community. Following these commun rules help to define again the group and show a solidarity of the circle united around the deceased. So to act out of norms was source of criticisms.

Celebration and sacrifice to Gods was out of question during this period. Eschyne sayed how the behavior of his political adversary Demosthene was inappropriate after this latter lose his daughter.

« Before to be in mourning, before to pay hommage, he appeared in public, crowned, dressed in white clothes ; he sacrificed victims, without regard to the most sacred laws, the miserable ! After to have lost the one who, the first and the sole, gave him the soft name of father. »
[Eschine III, Contre Ctésiphon 77-78 (trad. G. de Budé et V. Martin, « CUF », modifiée)]

As it was said previously, to be in mourning in Ancient Greece is to be stained. And so to have neglected and broken the mourning, Demosthène broke religious and social norms. He can’t be seen like a good leader of nation and a man of honor to take care of affairs of state. His behavior in front of this private event among other things justified that he was not considerate like a man of good in Macedon.

So body and clothes are communication tools on which are written a symbolic stain, the suffering, the proximity and affinity with the deceased and also the broken link. They leave temporary their best appearance. Men and women must degraded ritually their beauty of body.

From the archaic period then more clearly during the classical period, sobbing become the privilege of women. To say their sorrow, to moan, to cry their pain.

Women represent the family like particular unity of the city.They are used to say the abnormality of the death, and the break of family link through the mother link. While men represent the family in its continuity. They say the transmission of the name, the ligne, the home, its cults and its goods. So in their case to be in mourning this is to perpetrate the base of the city. That’s why the heir is in charge to pay hommage to the deceased. Besides, this is precisely their devotion and the nature of  link with the dead that men highlight. To be in mourning is both a duty of philia and the affirmation of a link of philia.

Mourning in political sphere

The vital theatrically of funeral rite must be conform to a norm, be measured, for lack of which the mourning become Hubris’ fault and an expression of feminine at the opposite of strong behaviors suitable for citizens. It doesn’t say the harmony and the good order that must rule to protect accord and unity of the city.

In Tragedy, this register of Hubris raises the feminine mourning or also called domestic mourning. Admetus orders to Thessalians to join the feminine mourning, hair cut and black clothes, for his wife. Admetus’ attitude was propre to a tyran, in that he let enter in the city what is domain of private sphere, breaking its harmony and its order.

For Athenians, the mourning, with women’s laments and its feminine excess which, not canalized, are frightening and are considerate like social nuisance, origin of disorder and susceptible to put in peril the city. Contrary to the feast that is meeting, joy and beauty, mourning owing to the rupture provoked by the death, put aside this sociability. To be in mourning is to deny temporary the social and political being, to desert the affairs of city and to not honor the Gods.

At the opposite, public funerals show a particular interest. They permit to the livings to celebrate, the laments letting place to the praises and like that, to preserve the city. A ceremonial where the mourning and funeral evolve in feast, where the white clothes replace the black, praises and hymns replace the laments.

Plato advised a celebration alike for the funeral for Laws’ examiners :

« When they will die, the exposition of their corpse, their funeral convoy, their grave will distinguish them from other citizens. Every body will dress in white. We will avoid laments and funeral songs. »
[Platon, Lois 947b.]

These honors differentiate them from simple mortals and relate them to some « heroic » founder. Some famed men and benefactors of cities during the hellenistic period had had such funeral. There the values reverse. The celebration look like a feast and become politic.


Concerning the mourning, laws existed in antiquity. I will not enter in this subject who is really interesting by the way but I will just report this : These laws obliged men and women to show their mourning and to isolate themselves from the civic life with measure. In its essence, its organisation and its manifestations, the mourning is at the opposite of the feast and by that, of the unicity of the city. So its must be controlled.

The execution of funeral rite questions the harmony of the city and breaks the balance of social and political links.


This being said, if we read Arrian about Alexander’s life and most particularly the passage about Hephaistion’s death, we can note that there is two distinct moments described by the historian.

First, during three days Alexander cut his hair, don’t eat, don’t take care of his body staying stretched out on his friend’s body sometimes in laments, sometimes in a quiet sorrow. This description are the signs that Florence Gherchanoc described about the domestic mourning.

Then, in a second period, leaving the private sphere, Alexander orders a public mourning across all the Persian empire, making built a pyre for the price of 10.000 talents. Following Alexander’s declaration, his companions dedicate themselves and their weapons to Hephaistion’s death. Adrian says that they did it for their King, on the initiative of Eumenes. This latter didn’t want to appear to be delight by Hephaistion’s death after their quarrel. But I think too that despite their liking or dislike for Hephaistion, beyond all that, it was the political man, his position as the most important man of the empire after Alexander himself that they honor, and for some of them too, following philia.

Arrian saw in the fact that Alexander cut his hair a way to imitate Achilles after Patroclus’ death. Of course we know Alexander’s interest for Illiad and Homer. But I disagree with Arrian. Alexander acted as he had to do, following established rules for the mourning. As Achilles did too. Both showing their link to the deceased they wanted to cry. This link taking place in the private sphere.

In spite of the outrageous cost of this funeral, Alexander followed a succession of events like it had to be made for a man of Hephaistion’s rank : Celebration with sport and cultural contests like none have seen before. Honor coming from the most important men of the Empire.

Alexander’s affection for his friend appeared for me in two moments. In his expression of his sorrow during this three first days. Then, when he refused to replace Hephaistion at the head of his horsemen unit and named this unit following Hephaistion’s name.

I will finish this article in quoting Arrian :

As, for Alexander himself, Hephaistion’s death had been a great misfortune,and I believe that Alexander would have wanted to leave before, rather than to experience it during his life, just as Achilles, to my opinion, would prefer arrive before Patroclus in Hades rather than to avenge his friend’s death.
[Arrian, Alexander’s life, VII, 16, 2]

Maybe the ancient had reason to see the death like a rupture bringing a disequilibrium for the city. In a way, after Hephaistion’s death, in some months it is all Alexander’s empire that disappear.

When Alexander meets Euripides


Admetus, you must endure this calamity. You are not the first and will not be the last to lose a noble wife. We all are doomed to die.


I know it.
Not unawares did this woe swoop down on me; for long it has gnawed at me.

But, since I shall ordain the funeral rites for this dead body, you must be there, and meanwhile let a threnody re-echo to the implacable God of the Underworld. And all you men of Thessaly whom I rule-I order you to share the mourning for this woman with severed hair and black-robed garb. You who yoke the four-horsed chariot and the swift single horses, cut the mane from their necks with your steel.

Let there be no noise of flutes or lyre within the city until twelve moons are fulfilled. Never shall I bury another body so dear to me, never one that has loved me better. From me she deserves all honour, since she alone would die for me!

_ Euripides, Alcestis, second episode.

In reading this text, I couldn’t help myself to think about Alexander the Great after Hephaistion’s death. We know Alexander organised the most expensive funeral from all time for his Chiliarq. His behavior were seen by ancient historians like disproportionate.

But in regard of his theatrical character, it is certainly more understandable. Euripides in a late age came in Macedon at Archelaos’ court, a far ancestor of Alexander the Great. There, Euripides wrote deux plays, The Bacchae and Archelaos (a lost play). Euripides and his work must be known by well-read Macedonians.

And we know that Alexander had a passion for theater. So, for all these reasons, it is not ridiculous to think that the young Alexander knew Euripides’work.

Some like Arrian saw in Alexander’s attitude after Hephaistion’s death a mirror of Achilles’ behavior after Patroclus’ death. Knowing that Alexander was a fervor admirer of Iliad. But without doubt, there is too some similarities between what the ancient historians reported about Hephaistion’s death and Alcestis. The severed hair, cut mane of horses, no noise of flutes or lyre. Plutarq describes that very well in Parallel lives :

He [Alexander] ordered to cut as soon as mane of all horses and mules in sign of bereavement, to destroy ramparts of cities surroundings and to put in croce the miserable medecin ; he forbade during a long time the use of flutes and all kind of music until the day where arrived Ammon’s oracle ordering to honor Hephaistion like a hero.

But, too we can wonder if it was not Plutarq who was influenced by Euripides’ play. We know that Plutarq was not the most rigorous historian.



New Gucci Guilty 2016

I like Fashion. I like Venice, Italy . A place  I visited long time ago but for whom I keep a particular place in my heart.  I like Jared Leto. So to see three subjects that retain my interest in the new video of Gucci Guilty was exciting. Alessandro Michele who directed the video has a thing for androgyny. And I must say that I have a weakness for this subject too.

I liked the way he shows Venice, ethereal. This kind of delicateness that we find too in the characters. It reminds me of Turner’s paintings. I like the way the camera plays with the reflects in water or mirror. And this softness who slides from one image to another gives some kind of sensuality and romantism. An impression reinforced by intimate moments between the boy and the girls. Intimacy is the word to describe this video. You hold your breath from fear to disturb. We are in place of a voyeur surprising hidden instants.

Music in Antiquity

Making some search about music and instruments in Antiquity for one of my stories, I found this very interesting website that I want to share with you :


(Click on the photos to extend)

Photos legends : 1. Aulos (transverse flute), 2. Greek zither, 3. Kroupeza (percussion), 4. Lyre with seven strings, 5. Lyre with eight strings,

It is about a specialist in Ancient Greek and Roman music, Annie Bélis, who wanted to revive Ancient musical repertoire. For this, her and her ensemble were helped by two lutthiers who built the instruments like the authentic ones used in Greek and Roman antiquity.

After 15 centuries of oblivion, Annie Bélis and the Ensemble Kerylos bring back to life some part of pieces like Euripides’ Oreste, The Seikilos Song or the two Delphic Hymns to Pythian Apollo. What it is interesting on this website is that you can listen some extracts of music, even without buying the album. So, you can have an idea of what was like the music of this age. And I must say that I was really surprised in a nice way and also moved to discover this music after centuries of silence.

On the website, you will find too a presentation of the instruments used and their recording project (I chose to show you only the Greek ones). Sadly, on the english version they didn’t translated the articles about the repertoire, the extracts and the videos. So if you want to listen some extracts you have to go in the french version there :

In the videos, the first one, Anne Bélis pays hommage to Alexander the Great in saying they will listen to a music that this music’s conoisseur has loved and others, more recent, that he certainly would love. Each video is a presentation of different musical pieces. Anne Bélis and her musicians plunge us back in the universe of each chosen moments through history first. And it is very interesting to learn some story about musicians’ life and creation of some pieces.

Like, for example, the famous Themoteus of Miley who revolutionized antique music in adding until to four strings to the lyre. Creating innovative compositions who were criticated by the conservative Spartans and Athenians. These critics was so severe that Themotheus thought to suicide. But, fortunately, he received the support of Euripides who made him change his mind. Euripedes would have said : ” Those people who hate you, they will be one day to your knees “. Finally Themoteus joined Euripides in Macedon under the reign of Archaleus I (ancestor of Alexander the Great). So Alexander must have known and listened to his music.

About the Ensemble KERYLOS :
It was created in 1990 by Annie Bélis. Its interest goes to the interpretation of vocal and instrumental partitions from Greek and Roman Antiquity.
Its name came from a poetic term by which Ancients designated the legendary bird Halcyon and from the “hellenistic” villa built in Beaulieu-sur-mer (France) under archeologist Theodore Reinach‘s direction, a pionner in the study of antique music. This one with the help of Henri Weil, sigh-readed two hymns to Apollo discovered in Delphi and published in 1893 and 1894.

Do you hear ?

A poem written both in french and english. If I can make a suggestion read it in listening the song who inspired me this one. I let myself carry by the song’s ambiance. I love this album and this melancholy who crosses it.  

Levon Minassian – Horovel

Entends-tu ?

Entends-tu les lamentations ?
Entends-tu la douleur et la peine ?
Le vent qui caresse nos visages, lourd des parfums de batailles, emporte au loin nos désirs étouffés.

Entends-tu ?

Entends-tu les chants des femmes ? Les rythmes des tambours ?
Entends-tu la douceur d’un regard croisé ?
Les voiles qui au gré du vent dansent des arabesques tandis que dans l’ombre des corps languides entrelacés s’abandonnent à la torpeur.

Entends-tu ?

Entends-tu au loin les chevaux qui s’élancent martelant le sol d’un rythme effréné ?
Entends-tu la poussière ? La sueur et le sang.
Entends tu la rage et la fureur ? Le métal qui déchire les chairs.
Ce rythme comme un cœur qui bat.

Entends-tu ?

Entends-tu rugir l’animal ? Celui qui se cache dans nos cendres.
Entends-le te dire de t’abandonner. De saisir et de prendre.
Entends le chasseur qui sommeille n’attendant que l’instant pour satisfaire son désir.
Entends-tu la folie ? Les entrailles déchirées. La bête dévorante.

Entends le soleil qui se couche et l’ombre qui envahit.
A cet instant tu sauras nos faiblesses et nos craintes.


Do you hear ?

Do you hear the laments ?
Do you hear pain and sorrow ?
The wind that caresses our faces, heavy with scent of battles, brings far away our stifled desires.

Do you hear ?

Do you hear women’s songs ? Rythmes of drums ?
Do you hear the softness of a crossed gaze ?
The veils that at the mercy of the wind dance arabesques while in the shadow interlaced languid bodies surrender themselves to the torpor.

Do you hear ?

Do you hear afar horses that rush forward beating the ground with frantic rhythm ?
Do you hear the dust ? The sweat and the blood ?
Do you hear anger and fury ? Metal that tears the fleshes.
This rhythm like a heartbeat.

Do you hear ?

Do you hear to roar the animal ? The one who hides in our ashes.
Listen it to say you to give in to. To grab and to take.
Do you hear the hunter who lies dormant waiting for this moment to satisfy his desire.
Do you hear the madness ? The ripped entrails. The devouring beast.

Do you hear the Sun setting down and the darkness that invades ?
At this instant, you will know our weaknesses and our fears.

“Teacher, as for me I want to forget all that”

dessin enfant-ok

Being french and born near Paris and even if I didn’t live there since few years, Paris and around is the place where I have lived the bigger part of my life. This is the place where a part of my heart will stay forever. It is the place where I grew up, where I studied, where I had fun, where I worked.

When I saw in TV the terrible events in the capital, I thought I should have to be there. I wanted to be there. That is stupid, you know, because what could I do ? I have this incredible need to be in this place at this moment but I couldn’t.

My own helplessness ate myself. So, I sent a message to my family who live there : my sisters, my brothers in law, my nephews… and also my friends. I wrote them the same thing : “I love you so much. Be careful.” All this made me realize in a hard way how fragile life is. And how important it is to say to those you love that you love them.

Some days later after the attacks, I called one of my sisters. The emotion was high. We cried. We didn’t talk much but we needed this connexion. She told me the story of her coworker who had to go in Paris the 13th to drink with three friends. At the last minute, her coworker decided not to go for some reasons. None of her friends came back. Or this man in a pharmacy telling that his best friend, wounded in Bataclan’s concert, asked him some news of his wife… And how difficult it was for him to announce that she was killed in the attack.

Since 3th november in Paris, I read a lot of articles, saw a lot of shows about what’s happened. I needed to understand. I read too in Libération, a French newspaper, an article* making the portrait of some victims. It was so moving and heartbreaking. Among the victims, people from different horizons, from different nationalities. Single or not, parent or not. Multiple profiles from here and elsewhere.

In reading their paths, I was struck by the twist of fate for some of them. Like for this woman : Patricia San Martin, 61 years old, born in Chile. She came in France to flee the politic of Pinochet in 1973. Her family returned in Chile. But she chose to stay in France. To finally be killed with his daughter by terrorists in her host country, during Bataclan’s concert.

In seeing the photographies of victims, i thought to all the others victims, those in the shadow, those who survived to that, friends, lovers, parents, children. And I wondered how the children who had lost a mother, a father or both of them react to the dramatic consequences of these events.

During the attacks in Paris, the restaurant “La Belle Equipe” was dramatically and badly hurt. The owner lost his wife and eight of his employees. Of course victims and their families are helped by psychotherapist.

And Here* is Tess the owner’s daughter who speaks about the lost of her mother : “My mother is gone cause of a projectile. I find this strange that I have eight years old and that my mother is gone. I am too young”. Then she added : ” It is complicated to live like that, but at least, I am happy that my father is not gone.” 

I thought how strong this young girl is. Children always surprise us for their abilities to pick themselves up. We have so much to learn from them.

Days that followed the attacks saw the forming of so many questions from children in class and at home. Like this question that a six years old boy asked : “Teacher, do you believe that terrorists has already cried ?” or these words from a primary school’s boy (grammar school) who said : “Teacher, as for me I want to forget all that”.

We would like too… but could we allow it ?


*The links send to French articles or video, sadly I couldn’t find an english version.
Notes : English is not my native language, so please excuse my mistake(s).